2.5.1. Environmental Safety Management at NPP Designing Stage
Assessment of the environmental impact of designed VVER-1200 NPPs during normal operation
According to world practice (International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), IAEA, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA USA) the tolerability of economic activities with application of radioactive substances shall be assessed on the basis of a comparative analysis of human health risk from environmental pollution.
Modern strategy of radiation safety is aimed at limiting the damage from stochastic effects to the level considered to be acceptable for the population and guarantee of negligibly low possibility of deterministic effects. A tool for assessment of potential life-time damage after exposure of big groups of people is the effective dose concept. The principles of regulation, justification and optimization (NRB-99/2009) and the recommendations of ICRP (Publication No. 103-2007) form the basis of acceptable radiation risk level.
In accordance with Instruction on Public Health Risk Assessment (Р 220.127.116.110-04), the individual life-time risk due to exposure to polluting substances is over 1·10−6 but under 1·10−4 which corresponds to tolerable upper risk level, i.e. the upper threshold of tolerable risk. For drinking water, World Health Organization stipulates the value of 1·10−5 1/year as tolerable risk, for atmospheric air — 1·10−4 1/year. These levels are subject to permanent monitoring. In some cases such risk levels may require additional measures for their reduction.
E.g., the obtained preliminary assessment of life-time risks for the population from environment pollution in the area of Leningrad NPP with VVER-1200, demonstrate the following:
- the forecasted level of radiation risks for the population from emission of radionuclides into the atmosphere by LNPP-2, does not exceed 0.34·10−6/(1.1−15.0)·10–8 1/year during normal operation (conservative assessment), and will stay within the permissible level (<<10−6).< li>
- The forecasted level of radiation risks from radionuclides discharges from LNPP-2 to natural water — (1.1−15.0)·10–8 1/year — lower that the radiation risks of radionuclides discharge from LNPP and other local radiation sources, which is 42·10−8 1/year.
- The forecasted level of pollutants concentration, including fine disperse water mist from the cooling towers in the air of the buffer area, the radiation control area and at the borders of European countries is expected to be significantly lower that the maximal permissible concentration. Analysis of danger coefficient calculation (acute inhalation impact) from inhaling the air containing fine-particle dust РМ10 and PM2.5 from cooling towers discharge of LNPP-2, shows that the danger coefficient is significantly lower than 1 (0.015 in the residential area и 0.24 at the border of LNPP-2). The possibility of a negative impact on public health through inhaling of such substances during life-time is insignificant (Р 18.104.22.1680-04, item 7.4.13).
- According to a conservative assessment, the main hazard risk for the population before LNPP-2 commissioning related to background environment pollution (air, water, food) is consumption of food of local production, drinking water and fish containing heavy metals (≈2−6)·10−4 1/year.
- As of 2014, the individual radiation risk for the population due to man-induced background radiation — (0.24−2.4)·10−6 1/year — is significantly lower than the risk from natural background radiation — 145·10−6 1/year and the risk from fine-particle dust in the air — (4−6)·10−6 1/year, being close to the range of permissible risks. 10−6).<>
To reduce uncertainties of the obtained results, it is necessary to perform systematic analyses of locally produced food and fine-particle mixture in the air in the residential areas.
The provisional assessment of population risk related to environmental pollution with chemical substances during VVER-1200 NPP operation is conservative (maximal).
According to article 3 (priority goal of preservation of natural ecological systems, natural landscapes and natural habitats, possible impact of economic and other activities on the environment in compliance with the requirements on environmental protection) and article 35 of Federal Law No. 7 “On Environmental Protection”, operation of a VVER1200 NPP with the existing man-induced radionuclides and chemical background will not result in a change of priorities of maintaining natural ecological systems, natural landscapes and natural habitats, will not deteriorate the quality of the environment, will preserve the biological diversity, will ensure rational use and restoration of natural resources.
It has been demonstrated that the concentration of pollutants in the atmospheric surface layer at the border of LNPP-2 buffer zone will not exceed 1 maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in all the ingredients and summation groups. The biggest concentration in specially protected natural areas reaches several parts per thousand for nitrogen dioxide, without considering the background concentration. In adjacent countries, the biggest concentrations of pollutants will amount to 10−4 of MPC, without considering the background concentration.
Assessment of NPP environmental impact
Forecasts made for designed NPPs demonstrate that radioactive impact on the population and the environment during normal long-term operation, assumed operational disturbances and design basis accidents, do not result in exceeding the established doses of the population exposure. Radiation impact on the population and the environment is maintained below the established regulatory limits.
During normal NPP operation, the main source of radionuclides emissions into the environment is gas and aerosol discharge from the ventilation stack. Engineering and technical solutions of the developed designs ensure the emission levels of radionuclides below the permitted levels (according to SP AS-03 — sanitary rules of NPP designing and operation). The actual annual releases of radionuclides into the atmosphere at operational NPPs are at the same level as those of European NPPs and are negligently low.
Maximal total doze of the population exposure to radionuclides developed during the operation of an NPP, will be less than 0.02% of the minimum significant dose produced by radionuclides of natural origin.
Dose load on the critical components of the land and the aquatic systems during the NPP operation is five and more degrees of order lower than the safe level.
Considering the background concentration, the largest concentration will reach 0.5 of MPC for nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and suspended particles. The contribution of cooling towers to atmospheric pollution at the border of the buffer area is significantly lower.
The accepted design of cooling towers water traps makes it possible to reduce the droplet entrainment up to 0.001% of full water consumption of a cooling tower which complies with the optimal parameters of the current best practices in accordance with the EU standards.
Environmental research of the current status of the surveyed area, its assessment and forecast of LNPP-2 impact were performed in 2007–2014 by specialized research organizations with appropriate licenses of self-regulated organizations and accreditation licenses of Federal Technical Regulation and Metrology Agency.
The collection and analysis of information also involved the use of data of State Hydrometeorological Agency (year books), public reports of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ministry of Health of RF.
Engineering and environmental surveys were performed for assessment of the current status and forecast of possible changes of the environment under the influence of industrial load and environmental feasibility study, in order to ensure favorable living conditions for the population and mitigating negative impacts on the environment.
Potential impact on the atmosphere by the designed NPPs
The annual amount of emissions of pollutants (NOх, SOх) into the atmosphere by the designed and operational NPPs is very insignificant. Such releases are generated mainly during periodic inspections of diesel generators of emergency power supply systems. In this respect the NPP parameters of emissions of pollutants are by several orders lower than those of thermal power plants. Power generation at hydro-electric power plants and the main alternative power sources does not entail significant emissions of pollutants. Incineration plants for radioactive waste (RAW) at NPPs are equipped with an efficient system of extensive purification of combustion gas and an emission control system. Non-radioactive NPP emissions into the atmosphere are not significant, they are caused only by start-up and standby boilers and diesel generator stations that are periodically switched in check-up modes, during complete blackout of the NPP or during repair works.
NOX emissions from NPPs with VVER 1200 are 4,160 times less those from thermal power plants, and SOX emissions are 63 times lower.
Thus, NOX (NO2+NO) emissions arising from NPPs with VVER 1200 is 3.08 tones/year, SO2 emissions are 1.154 tons/year. The amount of similar emissions of NO generated by thermal plants (in conversion to NO2) are 12,477.45 tones/year, and SO2 — 63.14 tons/year.
Potential sources of emissions of substances depleting the ozone layer are gas-insulated switchboards (sulfur hexafluoride) and refrigerating machines (freon). Emission of gas insulator (sulfur hexafluoride) from switchboards are impossible due to the appropriate design solutions. When choosing freons for refrigerators, the requirements of Directive EC 517/2004 are met (for facilities in EU). In any case, freon with the least global warming potential (GWP) is chosen.
Emissions of greenhouse gases (СО2, СО) into the atmosphere caused by VVER-1000 NPPs are 400 times less than those of thermal power plants that use gas, and emissions caused by VVER-1200 NPPs are 1000 times less.
The NPPs designed or put into operation by the Engineering Division generate no greenhouse gases (CO2). However, they generate CO due to periodic inspections of emergency power supply diesel generators.
|Type of power source||
Electricity generation per year (kW)
Emissions of greenhouse gases per year
|NPPs with VVER-1000 reactor||
(4 power units of Kalinin NPP)
СО — 8.28 tons/year;
CO2 — none.
|NPPs with VVER-1200 reactor||
(2 units of Leningrad NPP that are being designed)
СО — 3.18 tons/year;
CO2 — none.
|Hydro power plants||
Installed power (Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric power plant)
|Thermal power plants||
|СО — 3,840.61 tons/year|
|Alternative energy sources||
(Orenburg solar electric plant)
Potential impact on water resources
The designs developed by the Engineering Division comply with the Water Code of RF:
- no waste water discharge into water bodies without prior treatment and decontamination (prohibition to exceed the standards of permissible impact on water bodies and maximal permissible concentration of harmful substances in water);
- no withdrawal of water in the amount having a negative impact on a water body;
- no discharge of waste water with infectious agents and hazardous substances for which no standards of maximal permissible concentration have been established.
Concentration of pollutants in waste water of the designed NPPs shall not potentially exceed the relevant maximal permissible concentration of chemical substances, microorganisms and intervention level for radionuclides for the water of the receiving reservoir (used for fishery, potable or domestic purposes).
E.g., for rational use and protection of water resources, in accordance with Article 60 of the Water Code of RF, the design of LNPP-2 envisages recycling system of cooling water supply. Such design solution ensures that the impact on the receiving water reservoir is reduced as there is no direct discharge of cooling water — it is cooled mainly in the cooling tower and is discharged into the atmosphere in the form of vapor and an insignificant amount of drops (i.e. droplet carryover).
The choice of the cooling water reservoir is made at the stage of the NPP site selection in accordance with the national environmental legislation and international recommendations (IAEA) considering the results of engineering survey, environmental studies and predictive assessments.
During the last decades, direct service water supply has not been designed since it has been prohibited by the Water Code. In view of that, the NPPs designed in Russia use recirculating water supply systems with evaporation cooling towers (1-2 cooling tower per one power unit with a VVER-1200 reactor). The use of recirculating systems for NPP cooling makes it possible to significantly (by dozens of times) reduce the consumption of valuable fresh water for cooling of NPP equipment and reducing the damage to water biological resources in the water reservoir/water stream used as the source of service water.
In international practice, both direct and recirculating cooling systems are designed. E.g., all NPPs in France, USA, Belgium, Japan and other countries use recirculating service water supply systems and evaporation cooling towers. The largest NPPs in France with the power ranging from 900 to 1450 MW use evaporation cooling towers (Dampierre, Civaux, Chinon, Saint-Laurent, Chooz, Cattenom, Belleville, Bugey, Golfech, Cruas).
When selecting and justifying an NPP water supply system, it is necessary to take into account, among other things, the specific natural conditions at the site, the results of assessment of damage to water biological resources, the cost of fish protection facilities and the cost of compensating measures for biological resources, the results of risk assessment for the population arising from environment pollution with radionuclides and chemical substances during normal operation.
As for the scope of waste water from an NPP, it will not be different from a thermal power plant of similar power and similar service water supply system.
It is difficult to compare the scopes of waste of a hydro-electric power plant (GES) and an NPP/(thermal power plant), as GES practically has no water discharge, almost all the water discharged by a GES is recycled. The operation of the main alternative energy sources (wind, solar) practically do not entail any waste discharge.
To reduce the volume of waste water discharge, all water supply systems of the designed NPPs are made recirculating where possible.
Potential impact on biological diversity
The site for an NPP is selected on the basis of environmental legislation considering the location of specially protected natural areas. NPP designs envisage the location of NPP sites beyond specially protected natural areas.
Maintaining the environmental well-being (which, according to regulations, includes the population) means maintaining all its components in an acceptable condition: ecological systems, communities and genetic diversity.
A state environmental impact assessment of the federal level in the field of atomic energy use shall cover:
- materials for justification of licenses for certain types of activities having a negative impact on the environment in accordance with the RF legislation;
- design documentation for facilities whose construction and reconstruction is planned to be performed on the land of specially protected natural areas of federal importance.
For NPP projects, the sites shall be selected outside the specially protected areas and environmental review of design documentation is to be performed for those sites.
Types of possible sources of water consumption for NPPs designed by Rosatom Engineering Division
Potential impact on climatic changes
During the designing of NPPs, assessment of external impacts is performed within PSA (probabilistic safety analysis). The amount of works performed is huge — calculations, modeling (not only those related to the climate). PSA is compulsory for receiving a positive conclusion of Glavgosexpertiza (RF State Expert Evaluation Department) (granting construction license for the Customer) in the Russian Federation and of regulatory authorities where the Company projects are implemented. Without it, the Division will not be able to commence the NPP construction (except the preparatory period). That is why climatic risks are considered before the commencement of an NPP construction, and upon the results of engineering surveys the relevant solutions are taken for every project. During designing, extreme external impacts are taken into account, such as hurricanes, extreme temperature changes, precipitation, floods, etc. They are considered as constraints on the basis of which design solutions are taken. Financial assessment of the risks and possibilities related to climatic changes is not performed or planned before the enactment of the relevant legislation in the Russian Federation.
2.5.2. Environmental Impact Management during Facilities Construction
22.214.171.124. Industrial and environmental monitoring
Industrial and environmental monitoring in the Engineering Division Companies is performed at all facilities under construction and operation referred to category II and III having a negative impact on the environment, in accordance with environmental monitoring programs. In the Division there are no class I facilities having negative impact on the environment.
To ensure efficient environmental monitoring at facilities that have been put into operation, and facilities under construction during by JSC ASE and JSC ASE EC, joint standard STO 48546926.015–2018 “Regulations on industrial environmental control and monitoring”, was enacted in 2018.
Within the framework of industrial environmental control, the monitoring of soil was performed during the construction of Kursk-2 NPP. It was established upon the results of laboratory analyses that the parameters of the selected samples were below the maximal permissible concentration. The results of laboratory analyses are documented and stored in accordance with the requirements of regulations on document management.
At Belarus NPP construction site, environmental monitoring was performed in accordance with the approved schedule of industrial environmental monitoring for the representative office and the subcontractors.
JSC “NIKIMT-Atomstroy” has developed environmental monitoring programs for facilities of categories II and III. The program envisages industrial control over sources of atmospheric pollution, laboratory control over pollutants in domestic and rain waste water, control of pollutants in the atmosphere at the border of the buffer zone, checking the efficiency of operation of dust and gas catchers and industrial monitoring over the sources of waste generation and storage.
126.96.36.199. Industrial safety
Safety assurance requirements
Construction safety in the Engineering Division is ensured in accordance with Federal Law of RF 21.07.1997 No. 116 “On Industrial Safety of Hazardous Industrial Facilities”, the requirements of regulatory documents of RF and Unified Industry Policy of Rosatom State Corporation in the field of industrial safety.
In order to implement the Unified Industry Policy of Rosatom State Corporation in JSC ASE EC, the Policy of JSC ASE EC in the Field of Industrial Safety was approved and accepted for guidance and execution in accordance with resolution dated 28.03.2016 No. 40/373-П .
Within the framework of the goals set by Quality and Safety Inspection Control Division of JSC ASE EC in 2018, inspections of industrial safety status were performed in 2018 at the nuclear facilities constructed by the Company.
Inspections of compliance with the requirements to observation of industrial safety requirements at hazardous industrial facilities were performed. In the course of the performed inspections it was established that the companies operating hazardous industrial facilities comply with the requirements of industrial safety:
- hazardous industrial facilities are registered in the state register;
- civil liability for damage as a result of an accident at hazardous industrial facilities is insured;
- persons responsible for organization and performance of control over industrial safety, over the maintenance of hoisting equipment in operable conditions and safe performance of works with such equipment, at hazardous industrial facilities have been appointed in local regulatory acts.
- job descriptions for the above mentioned responsible specialists have been developed as well as regulations on production control, industrial manuals and manuals for occupational safety for the operating personnel and the personnel involved in cargo slinging.
In the branch offices of the general contractor, specialists have been appointed who are in charge of monitoring of the status of industrial safety at construction sites. Internal safety audits are performed during inspections of the industrial site. Upon results of the audits the contractors receive prescriptions on elimination of the revealed violations with further control of fulfilling the prescription requirements.
The most frequent violations in the field of industrial safety revealed during inspections are as follows:
- Records in the log books of hoisting equipment are not made on time by specialists responsible for industrial safety;
- Crane and sling operators are not familiarized against signature with the standard operating procedure;
- Gripping devices without identification numbers are located in areas where work with hoisting equipment is performed.
The status of industrial safety assurance in companies of the Engineering Division and at nuclear facility industrial sites is assessed as satisfactory.
188.8.131.52. Nuclear and radiation safety
In 2018, the Engineering Division recorded no accidents, incidents or anomalies during the use of radiation sources, no emissions and releases of radioactive substances into the environment. There were no cases of exceeding the control levels, agreed by Federal Medical and Biological Agency (FMBA) of Russia, of the main dose limits, internal releases of nuclides, air pollution, rooms surfaces, work places and equipment during works performance with radiation sources.
The operation of radioactive sources is organized in accordance with the requirements of regulatory documents in the field of use of nuclear power — maintaining the lowest possible level taking into account the economic and social factors of individual radiation doses and the number of persons being irradiated during the use of any radiation source (ALARA).
The company has licenses for works performance in the sphere of nuclear power issued by the state safety regulatory body to perform activities with sources of ionizing radiation. FMBA of Russia has granted sanitary and epidemiological permissions for the above activities. Specialists responsible for radiation safety assurance, accounting and monitoring and physical protection of radioactive substances, have been appointed. Such persons have undergone training, obtained certification and permissions of Federal Environmental, Industrial and Nuclear Supervision Service of Russia. Persons who are admitted to work with radiation sources have been examined by a medical commission to confirm that they have no medical contra-indications, have undergone training on the rules of work with radiation sources, have passed examination for admission to work with sources of ionizing radiation and have undergone safety briefing.
Individual exposure doses are recorded. Quarterly and annual doses as well as the total dose during the whole working period are recorded as well. The scope and character of dosimetric control is defined by radiation monitoring program approved by CEO of the company and agreed upon with the territorial body of executive power that is authorized to perform federal state sanitary and epidemiological monitoring.
The ionizing radiation sources, flaw detectors, and transportation and storage casks are stored in stationary storage facilities in accordance with the radiation safety requirements.
In order to ensure readiness to prevention of accidents at nuclear facilities, measures for prevention of accidents and incidents and documents determining the criteria for decision taking after radiation incidents, have been developed. A plan for protection of the personnel against radiation accident and its consequences has been elaborated and approved by FMBA of RF. Programs and methods of emergency drills were developed. Emergency drills are conducted on a regular basis.
Individual protection equipment is available, as well as communication facilities and tools for elimination of the consequences of radiation incidents.
During 2018, inspections of compliance with the requirements of federal norms and rules in the sphere of the use of nuclear power during the operation of radiation sources were held. Such inspections were performed by organs of internal control of safety and quality, state regulatory authorities of atomic energy use and state regulatory authorities of safety of atomic energy use. The comments and non-conformities revealed by commissions on safety during work with ionizing radiation sources did not have any significant impact; they were promptly eliminated during the work of the commissions.
The radiation safety assurance in organizations operating radioactive substances is assessed as satisfactory.
184.108.40.206. Environmental impact during an NPP construction
Environmental impact of the facilities constructed abroad is mainly in the scope of responsibility of the customers. This report discloses information on environmental impact of facilities built in the Russian Federation and of those facilities abroad where environmental impact is made by companies of the Engineering Division.
Impact on biological diversity during NPP construction
Construction of NPPs in specially protected natural areas (as a rule, places with a high biological diversity) is prohibited by the legislation of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus. That is why the construction areas are mainly located in developed agricultural territories and small forest areas with few animal species and habitats. Such areas are characterized by insignificant amount of vegetation, mainly in the form of low forest and bushes that are secondary plants developed after elimination of primary vegetation.
Considering an insignificant number of birds, both local and migrating, no special measures are envisaged.
During the study of land areas involved in NPP construction, no vegetation and animals from the Red List of Threatened Species of Russia and the Red List of International Union for the Conservation of Nature, were discovered.
As no construction is carried out in specially protected natural areas, the companies of the Engineering Division make no negative impact on the biological diversity in protected areas and areas of high biodiversity value outside protected areas.
The areas of NPP construction are characterized by near absence of animal life and animal habitats, due to which no special measures for rehabilitation of habitats are taken.
Impact on soil during NPP construction
In 2018, no land recultivation at the construction facilities of the Engineering Division was performed.
Impact on atmosphere during NPP construction
During the reporting year, releases of pollutants into atmospheric air were in compliance with the requirements of the environmental legislation of RF.
The total amount of pollutant substances discharged by the Engineering Division facilities in 2018 was lower than in 2017 and amounted to 22.52 tons. Of the total pollutant emissions, sulfur dioxides amounted to 3.6%, carbon oxide — 38.3%, nitrogen oxide — 14.4%, other substances — 43.7%.
Pollutant emissions were significantly lower due to improved parameters of JSC “NIKIMT-Atomstroy”.
|Type of pollutant substances||Volume of pollutant substances, tons|
Impact on water resources during NPP construction
The companies of the Engineering Division use water resources to supply drinking and household water to amenity rooms. Water is mainly taken from city water supply systems. Exceptions are water intake from underground sources of Lesnoy Uyut recreation center of JSC ASE EC, Baltic Branch of JSC ASE EC and surface sources of Tsimlyansk water reservoir for the needs of Volgodonsk Branch of JSC ASE EC.
The total water withdrawal was 246.5 thousand m3 without natural water inflow, 10 676.7 m3 with natural water inflow.
Domestic and rain water was discharged mainly to city sewage network, except Volgodonsk and Baltic Branch Offices of JSC ASE EC. To treat the waste waters of JSC ASE EC Baltic Branch during the period of the NPP construction, sewage treatment facilities of two types are envisaged:
- Mechanic treatment facilities for drain and surface (storm and melted) waste waters;
- Biological treatment facilities for domestic waste water of the construction base.
Annually, under a contract with a specialized laboratory, samples of natural water of IN-18-18 channel are analyzed for hydro-chemical parameters, waste water at the inlet to IN-18-18 channel are analyzed for hydro-chemical and microbiological parameters for the purpose of monitoring of the efficiency of treatment facilities operation, waste water is sampled before and after treatment. The morphometric parameters of the water reservoir are monitored as well.
Besides, Kursk Branch of JSC ASE EC carries out construction dewatering of the open pit of Kursk NPP-2. To increase reliability, water from the dewatering system is discharged via two pipes up to the connection point to the common discharge pipeline. The common discharge pipeline consists of two mutually redundant lines with the diameter of 530 mm; the flow of waste water is distributed evenly between the two discharges — No. 1 and No. 2. Waste water from dewatering system is discharged into the Seym river. Kursk Branch of JSC ASE EC has developed a program of regular monitoring over the water reservoir and its water protective area. These programs envisage monitoring over the quality of surface water in the background section and the monitoring section and their comparison to discharge of waste (drain) water into the water body, morphometric observations; control of the status of the water body and the impact of waste water on it; observations over the Seym river and its water protective zone, control over microbiological parameters in the waste water and the water body. Periodicity of sampling and analyses of surface water in the background and the monitoring sections of the Seym river is similar to periodicity of monitoring over waste (drainage) water. These programs contain a list of traced pollutants and parameters of permissible discharge approved for Kursk Branch of JSC ASE EC, the periodicity of sampling and the list of certified methods of measurement.
Rainwater collected and stored by the company and waste water of other organizations are not analyzed.
Waste water is discharged on the basis of permissions for discharge of waste into water body which stipulate requirements to the quality of discharged water.
In the Engineering Division, water is discharged at the NPP construction sites in Kursk, Volgodonsk and Baltic Branches of JSC ASE EC. In 2018, the total amount of discharged water grew by 40% compared to 2017 due to an increased amount of water discharged in the process of dewatering at Kursk NPP-2 construction site.
In Volgodonsk Branch of JSC ASE EC, waste water is discharged through central treatment facilities of Rostov NPP, and in the Baltic Branch — through sewage treatment facilities of two types: mechanic treatment of drain and surface (rain and melted) water from the construction base and from the Baltic NPP open pit construction site, and biological treatment for cleaning of the construction base domestic water. For the Baltic Branch of JSC ASE EC, a resolution on granting the right to use the water body has been issued and approved in accordance with the procedure established by the environmental legislation; a permit for discharge of polluting substances into the water body has also been received.
Water discharge of the Engineering Division does not have a significant impact on water bodies in terms of biological diversity and habitats.
No treatment facilities for waste waters discharge are envisaged in Kursk Branch, in accordance with the permissible waste discharge approved by the design. Decision on granting the right to use the water body and a permit to discharge substances and microorganisms into water bodies have been issued in accordance with the requirements of the environmental legislation.
In accordance with the terms and conditions of permitting documents for waste discharge, Kursk and Baltic Branches of JSC ASE EC have developed programs of measurement of the quality of waste water, regular monitoring of the water body and its protective zone. Such studies are performed by specialized organizations certified in accordance with the established procedure, under a contract.
The quality of discharged waste water belongs to “other” category.
|Type of destination of water discharge||Name of destination of water discharge||Discharge volume, thous. m3|
|Surface waters, including swamps, rivers, lakes and oceans||Central treatment facilities of Rostov NPP, the Seym river (CHER/DNIEPER/892/360), Channel In-18-8||67.6||7,554.46||10,541.06||+39.5|
|Other destinations and the volume of water supplied to other companies:||
Nizhny Novgorod Vodokanal;
Ostrovets RUE for housing and community amenities;
Vodokanal SPb SUE;
Balakovo Vodokanal MUE;
Desnogorsk Public Utility MUE;
Vodokanal MUE, Obninsk;
JSC Seversk Vodokanal
Power consumption during NPP construction
The amount of energy resources consumption by the Engineering Division grew in 2018 as compared to 2018 and amounted to:
- Electrical power — 63.28 mln KW·h (growth by 28%);
- Thermal power — 170 465.67 GJ (growth by 12.8%).
Increased amount of power consumption was mainly caused by changes of data submission principle at Belarus NPP construction site and an increase of the scope of services provided at cultural and recreational facilities.
Materials used during NPP construction
During civil and erection works, road filling at NPP construction facilities, the Engineering Division uses broken stone, sand and semi-products — bricks, metal structures and pipelines.
No registration of construction materials per weight and volume is maintained as civil and erection works at construction facilities are performed with involvement of contractors who independently procure raw materials in accordance with the working documentation.
During the performance of administrative, economic and design activities in the reporting period, the organizations of the Engineering Division used paper products purchased from external suppliers. The total scope of consumption of paper products in the organizations of the Engineering Division in 2018 was lower by 15.6% compared to 2017.
There is no record of treated or re-used waste.
Waste management during NPP construction
The management of industrial and consumer waste at construction and operation facilities of the Engineering Division complies with the environmental legislation of the Russian Federation, the countries of operation and the developed draft standards for waste production and limits for their disposal.
Waste accumulation areas are available at all construction and operation facilities of the Engineering Division of Rosatom State Corporation. Waste is accumulated in specially installed containers, as soon as they are filled, the waste is transferred to specialized organizations for subsequent decontamination and disposal on the basis of a license for collection, transportation, handling, disposal, decontamination and burial of Class I–IV waste.
The Engineering Division companies do not operate facilities for long-term waste storage and disposal.
In 2018, the total volume of waste production grew by 17% compared to 2017 and totaled in 5558.27 tons.
The low-hazard waste (IV class of hazard) and virtually no-hazard waste (V class of hazard) accounted for 56% and 43% respectively, of the total amount of waste production in 2018. In 2018, there was no significant growth of generation of class IV–V waste.
As before, the main way to handle waste of IV–V hazard classes is to transfer them to specialized organizations for placement in landfill sites that have been included in the State Register of Waste Disposal Facilities (GRORO).
The volume of I hazard class wastes generated in 2018 reduced by 13%, as compared with 2017. The reason was replacement of mercury-containing fluorescent tubes by LED ones.
The volume of class II waste generated in 2018 reduced by 55%. At the same time, the reduction in the volume of waste generation was due to smaller scope of works performed on certain construction sites, the maintenance and repair of transportation vehicles by third-party organizations under contracts and, therefore, the exclusion of waste generated from the technological process of organizations.
Transportation and transfer of waste to third-party organization for their further decontamination/storage was performed on the basis of contracts with specialized companies having licenses for management of class I–VI waste.
In 2018 organizations of the Engineering Division did not perform any activities related to transportation, import, export or treatment of waste which is hazardous according to Appendices 1, 2, 3 and 4 to “Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal”.
|I hazard class waste (extremely hazardous):||2.30||3.00||2.57||–14|
|II hazard class waste (highly hazardous):||1.23||1.56||0.70||–55|
|III hazard class waste (moderately hazardous):||8.20||7.82||8.48||+8|
|IV hazard class waste (low-hazard), including:||2,941.07||2,917.32||3,138.00||+8|
|V hazard class waste (practically no hazard), including:||2,173.80||1,802.34||2,408.53||+34|
|Total for I–V hazard category wastes||5,126.60||4,732||5,558.30||+17|
In 2018 the companies of the Engineering Division used non-renewable types of fuel for motor vehicles, special machinery and heating.
There was a reduction in fuel consumption in 2018: petroleum consumption declined by 12%, natural gas — by 15%, coal — by 4%.
Reduced petroleum consumption was caused by optimization of expenses for in-house loads, reduction of own transportation, use of rented transport. Reduced consumption of gas and coal used for heating is related to absence of extremely low air temperature during the year.
However, the consumption of diesel fuel in 2018 has grown.
Significant increase of diesel fuel consumption by Kursk Branch of JSC ASE EC is caused by the use of own special machinery for production purposes and establishment of a new structural division “Department of work performance with involvement of own resources”. The goals of the above department is annual cleaning of the work execution area and access roads, including facilities of the construction base, temporary townships and 5-meter adjacent area.
Consumption of diesel fuel by Novovoronezh Branch of JSC “Atomenergoproekt” is related to the use of heavy diesel machinery at the construction site instead of low capacity automobile cranes.
|Fuel type||Fuel consumption/fuel purchase expenses|
2017, %, dynamics
|tons||mln RUR||tons||mln RUR||tons||mln RUR|
Ensuring environmental safety of motor vehicles, including those that are used during NPP construction
The motor vehicles of the companies of Engineering Division undergo annual regular technical maintenance within the established deadlines under contracts with specialized service centers. These measures make it possible to operate vehicles without exceeding the established permissible amounts of pollutant emissions into the atmosphere.
Instrumental measurement data of pollutant emissions (СО, СН) at construction facilities are recorded in the relevant logs with further regulation of vehicle fuel systems (if necessary). Vehicles are examined during their entrance and operation at the construction site to make sure that there are no traces of oil and fuel leaks. Parking of vehicles on the openground is prohibited; vehicles can be parked only on special parking lots with hard pavement. Idle operation of motor during parking and their repair in the territory of the construction site is prohibited.
Euro 4 and Euro 5 standard fuel is used for motor vehicles.
Drivers shall undergo briefings and be aware that idle run of motors is prohibited.
Vehicles shall be washed at special car wash stations under relevant contracts.
Financing of environmental protection measures
The total amount of expenses for environmental protection in the Engineering Division during the reporting period was 20.15 million rubles which is 14% more compared to 2017.
The main reasons of growth of environmental protection expenditures at construction facilities in 2018 was strengthening of environmental monitoring measures at Novovoronezh NPP-2, water management and water protection activities: Installation of water measurement instrumentation; examination of facilities for treatment of domestic and surface waste water from the Baltic NPP construction site.
Besides, the expenditures grew due to increased price of transportation, management, decontamination and disposal of waste, change in 2018 of requirements to statistical reporting on current environmental protection expenses, inclusion of additional cost items into 4-OS report.
The amount of fines for violations of environmental protection requirements was 20 thousand rubles. Besides the fines, the Engineering Division received two instructions to eliminate the revealed violations in the field of environmental protection. The violations were eliminated in time.